What to do during natural emergencies
WHAT TO DO PRIOR EARTHQUAKE:
Simulate a situation of a major earthquake happenning. Plan your evacuation from your job place, home, and your children’s evacuation from school or kindergarden. Develop for yourself and for the members of your family possible options: the safest places for shelter, the best place to meet each other after an earthquake, etc. This “scenario” will help you to act calm in an emergency situation.
Prepare in advance a bag with:
IDs and other documents;
Food and water for three days;
First-aid kit and medicines if necessary;
Torch (flashlight) and matches;
Warm clothes and footwear;
Remember, if the earthquake began – don’t panic. Switch off gas, water and electricity. If the earthquake is light, don’t be afraid, it is better to stay where you are. If the earthquake is severe (magnitude 5 or more) and you are on the second floor or higher, do not leave the room. Go to the corner of internal wall or to a doorway, at a base column, lay down in a bathtub. Lay down under a bed, a table – they will protect you from the falling subjects and fragments. Keep away from windows and heavy furniture. Don’t use the elevator.
Keep the radio on!
Listen the signals of civil protection service – “ATTENTION TO ALL!”
If you are on the street, go to an open place away from buildings and power lines, don’t come to the torn-off electric wires. Don’t run along buildings and do not enter them.
If you are in the car, stay in an open place, don’t leave the car until the shocks stop.
Remember the main reasons of human victims during an earthquake are:
-Torn-off electric wires
-Falling of heavy subjects in the room
AFTER AN EARTHQUAKE:
-Provide first aid to victims
-Release victims from blockages if it does not require special equipment
-Turn on the radio
-If it is possible switch off a water, gas and electricity
-Don’t use a fire
Keep away from the damaged buildings and don’t enter them. Be ready for aftershocks. The first two-three hours after an earthquake are the most dangerous. The aftershocks may happen in some days, weeks or months. The probability of the aftershocks reduces as time passes since the first earthquake.
Syndrome of continuous squeezing (crash-syndrome) is the one of the most dangerous injuries. Continuous influence of heavy subjects (fragment of construction, fallen tree, massive furniture, etc.) to a hand or a leg of the injured person stops of a blood flow and causes a metabolic disorder in a human body. The amputation is a one of the consequences of a crash-syndrome.
If the injury has a syndrome of continuous squeezing: release the injury; make external survey of all his/her body; surely give him/her an anesthetic; put a tourniquet above a place of squeezing; warm him/her. Remember, there is no time to lose. Urgently take the injury to hospital, he/she needs the help of experts. You’ve made everything you could.
WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF MUDFLOWS
The mud flow is a stream of mix of water and a large number of fragments of rocks – from clayey breed particles to the large stones and blocks, suddenly arising in beds of the mountain rivers and hollows. A mudflow is formed after long rains, intensive melting of snow or glaciers, break of reservoirs, earthquakes and eruptions of volcanoes. It arises suddenly, moves with a high speed (to 10 m/s and even more) and passes, most often, several waves. Duration can last from ten minutes to several hours. The noise and a roar of a moving mud flow is audible at long distances.
How to be prepared for a mudflow:
Usually places where mud streams can descend are known. Before an exit to mountains, study these places along a route of the movement and avoid them, especially after long rains. There are practically no chances to escape from a mud stream. It is only possible to avoid a mud stream. At preliminary evacuation, before leaving the house disconnect electricity, gas and a water supply system. Close doors, windows and air vents.
Security measures at stay in mudflow areas:
1. Constantly watch messages of mass media on a situation in mountains.
2. Leave the mudflow streams.
3. Do not approach a moving mud stream closer than on 50-70 m.
4. Do not stop near steep rocks and steep slopes as from concussion when passing a mudflow there can be a collapse or a rockfall.
5. Do not stop for rest and do not set up a camp near mudflow courses, on lake crossing points (dams) and under them.
6. If signs of mudflow detected, immediately depart as far from the course uphill as possible.
7. Do not go down to the mudflow course after passing of a torrential shaft – the next shaft can follow it.
It is recommended to move on a morenno-glacial complex at negative air temperatures when danger of emergence of mud streams is absent or improbable.
IN CASE OF FLOODS:
· disconnect gas, electricity and water in the house;
· extinguish the burning heating furnaces;
· transfer to the top floors of the building or as;
· block windows and doors of the first floors of house with boards or furniture to prevent broken glasses and penetration of floating garbage into the house;
· take warm and preferably waterproof clother, blankets, food, drinking water;
· move to the meeting points if such exist;
· watch out for torn electric wires;