What to do during technogenic emergencies

 

Toxic Emissions

In case of an accident with emission of strong toxic agents:

-put on means of protection of respiratory organs and skin;
-close windows and window leaves;
-switch-off electric devices (heaters, heating tiles);
-block gas;
-to take documents;
-gather valuable staff, necessary clothes and a three-day supply of food;
-warn neighbors;
-quickly, without panic to leave the building or the area of accident.

While moving in the infected area:
• move quickly, but do not run and do not kick up dust;
• do not lean against buildings and do not touch surrounding subjects;
• do not step on the drops of liquid or powdery scatterings of unknown substances which are found on the way;
• do not take off means of individual protection;
• in case of detection of drops of strong toxic agents on skin, clothes, footwear, means of individual protection remove them with a paper tampon, rags or a handkerchief, whenever possible rinse the infected place with water;
• help to victims, children and elderly, anyone not capable of moving independently;
• do not eat food, do not drink water.

Main ways of protection of the population against strong toxic agents:
• using means of individual protection of respiratory organs;
• using protective constructions (for working personnel at chemical dangerous entity);
• temporary shelter for the population in residential and production buildings;
• evacuation of the population from zones of possible infection.

Gas masks, respirators, self-rescuers are the most effective way for  individual protection of population in a real situation of environmental pollution by strong toxic agents.
To reduce striking effect of strong toxic agents for people in the buildings and constructions reduce penetration of external air inside.
Sealing of rooms:
• close entrance doors, windows (first of all from a windward side);
• cover air vents with dense material or paper;
• cover doors with damp materials (a wet sheet, blanket);
• glue the thinnesses of window openings with an adhesive tape, paper or to stick withavailable materials  (cotton wool, foam rubber, soft cord).

It is necessary to consider that concentration of strong toxic agents inside of high buildings will significantly differ on floors.  In winter most of infected air will concentrate on the first floors of buildings. The satest floors will be the top floors. In summer conditions concentration of  strong toxic agents which are lighter than air (ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, formaldehyde, methyl chloride), will be mostly on the top floors. Heavy strong toxic agents (chlorine, phosgene, sulphurous anhydride) usually stay on first floors of buildings.

Evacuation of the population will be organized by the evacuation commissions and evacuation will take place in case of warning of a possible dangerous chemical situation. It can be carried out by motor transport and on foot. Routes for evacuation are choosen considering weather conditions, features of the district and other factors. The greatest efficiency in population protection  is reached only if evacuation is carried out before the approach of infected air cloud.